Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Page last updated: December 16, 2020
Overview of COVID-19
COVID-19 is a coronavirus, which is a large family of viruses. COVID-19 was first identified in the Wuhan province of China in late 2019 and early 2020. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and international health experts, pets and other domestic animals are not considered to spread COVID-19 to people.
What are coronaviruses?
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses with some affecting animals and some affecting people. Most livestock producers and veterinarians are very familiar with common animal coronaviruses like Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, which impacts pigs. The majority of coronaviruses stick to their own species. COVID-19 has not been proven to circulate between people and animals.
There is a very specific molecular structure of coronaviruses to make each compatible with the specific species they infect. All species have different cellular structures and react differently to each virus. While one species can be infected, another could pass the virus through its body without any effects. This explains why different coronavirus strains affect specific species and body systems.
COVID-19 is a global human-health concern at this time. Veterinarians’ first priority should be taking the routine precautions advised by the CDC to limit human-to-human transmission. There’s no evidence pets or livestock can spread the virus to people.
Follow standard cleaning and disinfection protocols for exam rooms and the facility. These protocols will kill the virus that causes COVID-19. Be sure to follow the correct contact time and dilution instructions for the products you use. Focus additional disinfection on high contact and high touch surfaces such as phones, doorknobs, keyboards, and equipment.
Veterinarians should consider these actions at their facilities:
- Curbside medicine: the building is closed to clients who remain in their cars while pets are taken in and out by staff, and discussions about care are conducted over the phone.
- Consider telemedicine appointments for established clients with valid veterinarian-client-patient-relationships, when medically appropriate.
- Using temporary measures to mark out 6 foot distances to follow CDC guidelines on How to Protect Yourself in the lobby or exam rooms.
Telemedicine for veterinarians
The Minnesota Board of Veterinary Medicine extended the VCPR requirement to 18 months, which gives veterinarians the flexibility to help reduce human to human interaction to slow the spread of COVID-19.
Veterinarians should contact either the Board of Veterinary Medicine or Board of Animal Health for clarification if there are any questions about examining patients remotely and completing required documentation. Despite the additional challenges of examining animals remotely, certificates of veterinary inspection are necessary to certify the movement of healthy animals.
The Food and Drug Administration also temporarily suspended enforcement of portions of the federal VCPR requirements relevant to certain FDA regulations. The FDA, generally, does not intend to enforce the animal examination and premises visit portion of the VCPR requirements relevant to the FDA regulations governing Extralabel Drug Use in Animals and Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) drugs. This allows veterinarians to prescribe drugs in an extralabel manner or authorize the use of VFD drugs without direct examination of their patients, which will limit human-to-human interaction and potential spread of COVID-19 in the community.
In some instances telemedicine is not a substitute for medically required procedures, and veterinarians should use their best judgement about when it is necessary to physically examine an animal.
If clients have human health questions they can call the Minnesota Department of Health at 651-201-5414.
Testing animals for COVID-19
At this time, routine testing of animals is not recommended. Officials at the Minnesota Board of Animal Health and Minnesota Department of Health will take the lead in making determinations about whether animals should be tested for SARS-CoV-2.
- Veterinarians are strongly encouraged to rule out other, more common causes of illness in animals before considering SARS-CoV-2 testing.
- While additional animals may test positive as infections continue in people, it is important to note that performing this animal testing does not reduce the availability of tests for humans.
The CDC says the best way to prevent COVID-19 and other viruses from spreading is by following everyday preventative behaviors. Follow these three simple steps to reduce risk of transmission:
- Wash your hands frequently. Here’s a helpful CDC handwashing guide.
- Stay home when sick.
- Cover coughs and sneezes.
- The CDC advises the use of simple cloth face coverings to slow the spread of the virus.
If you are sick with COVID-19 (either suspected or confirmed by a test), restrict contact with your pets and other animals, just like you would around other people.
- When possible, have another member of your household care for your pets while you are sick.
- Avoid contact with your pet, including petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food or bedding.
- If you must care for your pet or be around animals while you are sick, wear a cloth face covering and wash your hands before and after you interact with them.
All livestock producers have standard biosecurity procedures in place for the day-to-day operation of their farm. It is recommended that people sick with COVID-19 limit contact with animals until more information is known about the virus. When possible, have another member of your household care for your animals while you are sick. If you are sick with COVID-19, avoid contact with your pet, including petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food. If you must care for your pet or be around animals while you are sick, wash your hands before and after you interact with pets and wear a facemask.
Livestock movements and resources
There are currently no movement restrictions on livestock in the U.S. related to COVID-19.
Livestock producers can review emergency carcass disposal resources on our website.
The University of Minnesota Extension developed resources for swine producers experiencing processing delays.
There is currently no evidence dogs, cats or other pets can spread COVID-19 to people. However, since animals can spread other diseases to people, it’s always a good idea to wash your hands after being around animals. Anyone confirmed with COVID-19, as with any illness, should restrict contact with their pets and other animals while ill. Learn how you can protect the health of your pets and yourself on the CDC’s Healthy Pets, Healthy People website.
As always, animal owners should continue to include pets and other animals in their emergency preparedness planning, including keeping a two-week supply of food and medications on hand.
If you are healthy and your pet needs to see a veterinarian, please call before bringing them in to the vet. Veterinary clinics are taking precautions and may have a special operating procedure that you will be asked to follow.
If you are ill with COVID-19 and your animal needs emergency care, ask a healthy family member or friend bring your animal in to be seen.
Cats and Dogs in the U.S.
Public health officials are still learning about SARS-CoV-2, and there is no evidence pets play a role in spreading the virus.
Until more is known, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the following:
- Based on the limited information available to date, the risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered to be low.
- It appears that the virus that causes COVID-19 can spread from people to animals in some situations.
- Treat pets as you would other human family members – do not let pets interact with people outside the household.
- If a person inside the household becomes sick, isolate that person from everyone else, including pets.
Service and therapy animals
According to the CDC, it appears the virus can spread from people to animals in some situations. CDC is aware of a small number of pets, including dogs and cats infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, mostly after close contact with people infected with COVID-19.
If you have a service or therapy animal, follow your local guidance for acceptable distancing practices. Service animals may need to be around other people and animals while working. When possible, both the handler and the animal should stay at least 6 feet away from others.
The CDC does not have any evidence to suggest animals or animal products imported from other states or countries pose a risk for spreading COVID-19 to people in the U.S. As always, animals imported from outside the U.S. need to meet CDC and USDA requirements for entering the country. As with any animal introduced to a new environment, animals recently imported should be observed daily for signs of illness. If an animal becomes ill, the animal should be examined by a veterinarian. Call your local veterinary clinic before bringing the animal into the clinic and let them know that the animal was recently in a region with known COVID-19 infections.
The CDC, USDA and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) cooperate to regulate animals and animal products imported into the U.S. The CDC regulates animals and animal products that pose a threat to human health, USDA regulates animals and animal products that pose a threat to agriculture, and CBP patrols and inspects entry points for animals and animal products.
The CDC does have import requirements for rabies vaccination applying to dogs imported from countries considered high-risk for rabies.
Livestock exhibitions and events
Consult state and local health departments about plans for hosting an event. If you want to hold a livestock exhibition virtually, you should consult the Board of Animal Health.
The CDC released guidance for fairs, livestock shows and other animal exhibits. Visit the CDC website to review the material.